Women with PCOS are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome (a pre-cursor to diabetes) and have decreased Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. It is responsible for making the body’s cells absorb glucose (sugar) from the blood…. sensitivity, known as insulin resistance, compared with women of similar body weight with normal ovaries. Evidence suggests that insulin resistance is the likely link between PCOS and the metabolic syndrome, [1a], [b], [c], [d], although insulin sensitivity is not always found with PCOS, particularly with non-obese women. Family history seems to be an important factor, as women with PCOS and a positive family history of type 2 diabetes seem to have a higher risk of abnormal insulin sensitivity and secretion.
Insulin resistance worsens with increasing obesity, which is a major feature in women with PCOS. High levels of insulin appear to stimulate and increase blood levels of androgens (male hormones) in PCOS and suppress a Proteins are large molecules consisting of chains of amino acids. Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body – they are a building block of… called sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), a protein that binds to sex hormones and keeps the levels available in the blood at optimum levels. The use of insulin-sensitising drugs (see below) has been shown to decrease blood levels of insulin in both obese and non-obese women with PCOS, and to simultaneously reduce circulating androgens and to improve ovulation.  PCOS can cause the ovaries to stop ovulating, which means that the normal cyclic production of estrogen followed by Progesterone is one of the main female sex hormones…. either ceases or becomes dysfunctional. Insulin stimulates the ovaries to produce predominantly male hormones, which, in combination with higher insulin and glucose levels, increase weight gain around the waist – a body type that is a risk factor for breast cancer.
Signs that the body is being exposed to higher levels of the male hormones include acne, loss of head hair and an increase in body hair. Lowering insulin levels is crucial for not only treating PCOS but also resolving most other hormonal imbalances, including those leading to breast cancer. Depression or mood swings are also common in women with PCOS and it is also associated with insulin resistance, hormone imbalances and being overweight. Infertility and miscarriages, common consequences of PCOS, also can be very stressful and depressing. Too much stress may aggravate many aspects of the syndrome, including insulin resistance.
There are a number of blood tests that will probably have been performed by your doctor if you have, or are suspected of having, PCOS. An ultrasound may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Blood test results that are generally found in women with PCOS include:
• HIGH Androgens are often referred to as male hormones. Although both men and women produce them, they are present in much higher levels in men. The… levels (male hormones, such as Testosterone is a male sex hormone important for sexual and reproductive development….), luteinising hormone (LH), fasting insulin, prolactin, estradiol and estrone, tryglycerides, total and LDL (‘bad’) cholesterol.
• LOW levels of SHBG, which are decreased by high levels of insulin, as explained above.
How is PCOS Treated?
There are many medications to control the symptoms of PCOS. Doctors most commonly prescribe birth control pills for this purpose. Birth control pills regulate menstruation, reduce androgen levels and help to clear acne. Your doctor may also prescribe an insulin-sensitising medication, such as Metformin (see below). It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of these medications to find out which, if any, is right for you. Metformin is an insulin-sensitising medication, which may be prescribed for PCOS, [5a], [b], [c], [d] although some experts believe this should be...