Meanwhile, there is an enzyme, called telemorase, which can lengthen the telomere. The more telemorase activity the slower the ageing process. For example, there’s one bacteria, called tetrahymena thermophile, that has superactive telemorase so its telomeres never shorten and it lives forever.
The length of your telomeres is a very good predictor of your healthy lifespan. Also, people who have cardiovascular disease, arthritis or vascular dementia tend to have shorter telomerase, and shorter telomeres predicts risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease death. At this point in time there’s a fair bit of ‘chicken or egg’ – do the diseases cause shortening telomeres, or are shortening telomeres resulting in the disease. But, a critical issue in ageing is what lengthens or shortens telomeres, and what promotes telemorase?
I attended a lecture by Professor Elizabeth Blackburn from the University of California, who won a Nobel prize for her part in discovering all this. She updated me on all the things that lengthen or shorten telomeres, many of which we have control over.
Reduce your stress – many studies have found that people in prolonged stress situations, such as caring for a sick child or parent with dementia, lessens telemorase activity and telomere length. So do childhood traumas, chronic depression and cynicism. Those with ‘hostile’ cynicism have shorter telomeres. Conversely, there are some good studies that show that meditation is associated with longer telomeres.
Sleep well – The better you sleep the longer your telomeres. As far as longevity is concerned seven hours seems to be the optimal.
Exercise – The more you exercise, and the less stress you have, the longer your telomeres. In one study, those with post traumatic stress disorder who exercised didn’t have the usual telomere shortening.
Don’t smoke and stay slim – Both obesity and smoking are associated with shorter telomere length in a study
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