What encouraged doctors at the Royal Sussex County Hospital in Brighton to put patients on probiotics was a randomised controlled trial, published in 2007, which found that a yoghurt containing three probiotics cut down the amount of diarrhoea patients suffered as a result of being put on antibiotics to treat the bug C.difficile, which they had picked up in hospital. 
The general public, however, aren’t so cautious. They clearly believe that probiotics are beneficial – around two million Britons now spend an estimated £135 million on buying drinks, yoghurts and capsules containing probiotics. Meanwhile, the medical mainstream continues to regard the gut largely as a form of plumbing to unblock or solidify, to be treated with drugs to damp down inflammation or acid if either seem to too high – and finally to be chopped out if none of that works. What this fails to take into account is the extraordinary complexity of the gut, not least of the ecosystem of the bacteria inhabiting it.
There are more than a thousand species living in our guts, most of which can not be grown in cultures in the lab, and these are intimately involved in the workings of our immune system, as well as helping us extract nutrients and metabolise waste.
A Hidden Sense?
This hidden world was vividly described at a conference three years ago in Dublin by Professor Fergus Shanahan of the Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre at the University of Cork. He described the constant cross-talk between the bacteria and the “mucosal layer”’ that lines the gut walls, creating a system “which has more cells than the spinal chord and forms the largest metabolic and immune organ in the body with direct connections to the brain.” In fact, Shanahan went on, it behaves like one of the senses. “It has receptors and information flowing in and out that has to be integrated and organised, so it also has memory and learning.”
As with other senses, if it’s not set up properly at the beginning of life and doesn’t get the necessary stimulation, it won’t function so well. “At birth, beneficial bacteria from the mother have to colonise the gut, a process which can be delayed in the case of caesareans,” he said. &......
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