Q: My cancer was oestrogen positive and I have been advised to not have soya – should I really avoid it?
PJP: Oestrogen in soya is in the form of phytoestrogens and almost all vegetables contain phytoestrogens. The phytoestrogens in soya are between five-hundredth to a thousandth of the strength of normal oestrogen. They are considered by most authorities, including the Royal Society, to be entirely protective.
Q: What amounts of soya do you feel that an individual suffering from breast cancer should take each day and in what form is the soya best taken?
PJP: The ideal form is miso, tofu, tempeh, natto or soya milk, but not processed soya products which can contain other unnecessary additives and may not contain the beneficial phytoestrogens. Also select organic non-GMO soya. Aim for a serving a day.
Q: My mother and grandmother both had breast cancer. How can I prevent it?
PJP: Follow my diet. The genes implicated in breast cancer are tumour suppressor genes, which means the cells don’t have a brake on their growth. So provided you cut out as many growth factors as possible – milk and meat being the main sources – then these genes are less likely to be needed to control cell growth. A good diet can cut risk by up to 40% but you must also have regular checks. However, recent research from the Netherlands suggests preventative mastectomy can reduce breast cancer risk by more than 80% in those carrying the BRCA1 or 2 genes.
Q: Should women submit themselves to regular breast screening?
PJP: One has to be aware that ionising radiation can itself cause cancer so breast cancer screening involving mammography should be used with some considerable caution, depending on how much other radiation you’ve had in your life including from x-rays and CT scans. You can ask for ultrasound or thermal methods of screening. I would also advocate being breast aware yourself, which I explain in my book.
Q: I would like to ask whether there have been any serious studies to determine environmental causes of breast cancer?
PJP: Interesting question. There is not really enough reliable evidence at this point ......
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