In some countries, for example India and China, that proportion appears to be less than half that occurring in Britain. When people in one country suffer much more from a disease than people of a similar age in another country, this is a sure sign that the difference has something to do with diet, lifestyle or other environmental factors – or genetic variance. We can rule out genetic differences as the major factor, particularly because Chinese and Indian people who emigrate to Britain soon acquire a similar risk for developing dementia. In any event only one in a hundred cases of Alzheimer’s is caused by genes.2
A decline in memory and concentration is not the same thing as a diagnosis of dementia or probable Alzheimer’s, although it does mean your chances of developing these conditions are higher. Every year roughly a million people in Europe will develop age-related cognitive impairment. Within a few years, more than 50 per cent, and possibly 80 per cent, of these people will develop dementia.3 Currently, there are an estimated 750,000 people with dementia in Britain, and some 24 million worldwide.
Roughly speaking, 50 to 70 per cent of people diagnosed with dementia will end up diagnosed with probable Alzheimer’s, while 20 per cent will be given a diagnosis of vascular dementia, caused by constricted blood ﬂow to the brain due to blocked arteries. There are other forms, such as dementia with Lewy bodies, fronto-temporal dementia and dementia caused by a stroke, a bleed in the brain or a brain tumour. But as Alzheimer’s is the most widespread, let’s look at it in depth.
The anatomy of Alzheimer’s
Dementia – including Alzheimer’s – is an insidious condition. In the early stages, sufferers have increasing symptoms of absentmindedness, low mood and an inability to learn new things. Judgement, and their ability to function intellectually and socially, begin to go awry. The person may repeatedly forget to turn off the iron, or may not recall which medicines they took in the morning. They may start to show mild personality changes, such as a lack of spontaneity or a sense of apathy and a tendency to withdraw from social interactions.
Later on, there will be a loss of logic and memory, disorientation and poor coordination. Speech ......
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